Holy Roman Empire
The latter, on 29 October, without consulting the Holy See , arbitrarily declared the Concordat null and void and substituted a law quite inimical to the Church , which received the approbation of the Landtag. Members of religious orders or of religious congregations that resemble orders are forbidden to teach in any educational institution in the Grand Duchy of Baden. During this time, the concept of "reform" emerged, in the original sense of the Latin verb re-formare — to regain an earlier shape that had been lost.
Upon Louis' death in , it passed to his son Lothair , who had been his co-ruler. In undenominational schools were introduced and made obligatory , the Catholic corporation schools were made unsectarian, and several monastic educational institutions were suppressed. Local associations of the members belonging to the churches recognized in Baden have, as parishes , the rights of public corporations. From onwards, revolutionary France was at war with various parts of the Empire intermittently. The number of territories in the Empire was considerable, rising to about at the time of the Peace of Westphalia. He died in
Gruppen were formed in February to complete the Geschwader. Johnen scrambled with new crew members bordfunker radar operator Facius and his bordmechaniker observer mechanic Paul Mahle—whose wife lived in Berlin—scrambled to intercept at The Berlin anti-aircraft artillery had permission to fire up to 24, feet and Johnen was forced to fly through it.
Once in the bomber stream. FuG Lichtenstein SN-2 radar failed and the crew were forced to spot the enemy with the naked eye. On 18 November Harris began his Berlin offensive. Oberleutnant Johnen achieved thwo victories on the night of the 3 January —matching his most successful night thus far—when he accounted for two Lancasters at Johnen filed three claims on the 27 January A trio of Lancasters were claimed between Another over Kummenerer See at This series of successes led to his promotion as Staffelkapitan squadron leader of 8.
In early April his unit moved to Mainz under the command of I. Johnen feathered the propeller but flew into a searchlight blinded him. He fired a distress flare but lost his bearings. When the flare was deployed the searchlight was momentarily turned off and Johnen headed for an illuminated airfield.
Leutnant Kamprath was also II. The Gestapo arrested the crew's families until it was discovered to be a genuine error. Kaltenbrunner contacted Otto Skorzeny who planned an attack. He arranged an ad-hoc unit at Memmingen and planned to use them to fly into the airbase in a transport from Kampfgeschwader and confiscate or destroy the Bf Chief of intelligence of the SS SD Walter Schellenberg suggested offering the Swiss 12 Messerschmitt Bf G-6s and manufacturing rights to them in exchange for the return of the aircraft and the crew.
The Swiss had thoroughly examined the Bf but kept this from the Germans. Hermann Göring , commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, immediately suspected it was an enemy agent. In the end, it was agreed that 12 Bf G-6 fighters would be sold to Switzerland at , francs each. In return, the Bf would be blown up in front of German eyewitnesses.
He examined the aircraft and noticed one of the SN-2 aerials had been removed and replaced. Brandt initially refused to sign the protocol, but eventually relented on the evening of the 18 May The Bf s arrived the next day and Brandt handed the money to Göring personally on 21 May. The engines of the Bf s were all write-offs and Messerschmitt and Daimler-Benz had to pay compensation for this oversight six years later. The British were also attacking oilfields in Romania and operating over the Carpathian Mountains.
A handful of German night fighter units were moved there to defend against these incursions. In consideration of this attitude, the Government, after the victory over the revolutionary forces, seemed disposed to change its policy; it permitted the Jesuits to hold missions among the people and allowed the archbishop greater freedom in the ad- ministration of church discipline.
The change, however, was not of long duration; soon the old system of state guardianship was again in force. The four suffragan bishops of the province of the Upper Rhine also came into conflict with their respective governments in securing freedom for the Catholic Church. To obtain unity of action Archbishop Vicari, in compliance with the regulations of the plenary council of the German Catholic episcopate held at Wurzburg summoned his suffragans to Freiburg in the spring of In a memorial addressed to their respective sovereigns, they demanded the privilege of training their priests and appointing them without outside interference, the free exercise of ecclesiastical discipline among priests and laymen , and the privilege of conducting Catholic schools , of establishing religious societies and associations, and of administering church property without hindrance.
Having waited in vain for a reply from the Government, the bishops addressed a reminder to the authorities February, , renewing the demand for the abolition of the state supremacy. Not until 5 March, , did they receive a decision; this contained trivial concessions, but was adverse on the principal points.
The old system of state tutelage was to remain unconditionally in force. Thereupon the five bishops reconvened April, in Freiburg and embodied their demands in a second memorial dated 18 June, setting forth the inadequacy of the concessions granted 5 March, and reserving to themselves the right of taking further measures.
While four of the bishops received from their respective authorities more or less far-reaching concessions, a bitter struggle was precipitated in Baden. Meanwhile, an occurrence in Baden had increased the estrangement to an open rupture between the civil authorities and the archbishop. In conformity with the laws of the Church the archbishop prohibited the celebration of requiem Masses for Protestant princes and ordered other, appropriate services instead.
The authorities, however persisted in their demand, declared the services ordered by the archbishop inadequate, and attempted to induce pastors to celebrate requiem Masses in defiance of the archiepiscopal mandate. Only about sixty out of the priests complied, whereupon the archbishop decreed that the clergy who had disregarded his command should, in expiation, attend certain exercises of five days conducted by the Jesuit Father Roh , at the theological seminary of St. Although the civil authorities promised their protection to those priests who should resist this sentence, the clergy to a man obeyed the order of the archbishop , ensuring him a victory so complete as to give him the power of resistance in further conflicts.
In response to the second memorial from the bishops of the province of the Upper Rhine, the representatives of the State of Baden refused to make a single concession to the Catholic Church.
The archbishop then informed the Government that he would take steps to secure the rights that were his, but were unjustly withheld by the civil authorities. He held competitive examinations for parish appointments and for admittance into the theological seminary , without the presence of a government commissioner; he filled parishes to which the Government could not establish a canonical right of patronage, demanded from the Oberkirchenrat an administration of church property strictly in accordance with canon law, threatening excommunication in case of disobedience.
Thereupon the Government placed the official actions of the archbishop under police surveillance, banished the Jesuits from Freiburg , and threatened the clergy who submitted to the Church with the loss of their incomes, and with civil punishment. Two priests of Karlsruhe and Freiburg, who had proclaimed the sentence of excommunication pronounced upon the Oberkirchenrat by the archbishop were actually placed under arrest.
On still more unwarrantable interference by the Government, the archbishop issued a circular letter to be read from the pulpits , ordering an independent administration of ecclesiastical institutions without regard for civil mandates, and prohibiting the clergy from having any connection with state officials. The Government, seeing in this enactment an instigation against civil authority , forbade its promulgation in the churches and attempted to seize all copies of the letter, in some cases succeeding by force.
A judicial inquiry was instituted against the archbishop 18 May, , charging him with disturbing and endangering the public peace. On 22 May he was placed under arrest, and confined to his room under a guard of gendarmes until 31 May. At the command of the archbishop the diocesan court continued to transact all business, and sent a dispatch to Rome asking the pope to make provisions for the administration of the diocese.
All churches were to be draped in mourning, church bells were silent, alters were stripped of their adornments, and everywhere the faithful assembled for public prayer. The pope , in a note dated 8 June, addressed to the civil authorities of Baden took the archbishop under his protection.
The government then proposed to enter into negotiations with the Holy See , and a peaceful arrangement was made, which created a tolerable modus vivendi.
The proceedings against the archbishop and clergy were stopped and gradually the way was opened, for amicable relations between the civil authorities and the archbishop. The lengthy negotiations with Rome were brought to a close by the signing of the Concordat of 8 June, , which went far towards meeting the just claims of the Church and accorded practically all the demands of the archbishop , in particular the right of appointment to parishes , religious instruction, participation in the management of church property , the right of decision in questions concerning marriage, etc.
Thereupon the Liberals and Democrats rose in opposition to the Concordat; everywhere meetings of protest were held, resulting in in the dismissal of the Conservative and the formation of a Liberal ministry. The latter, on 29 October, without consulting the Holy See , arbitrarily declared the Concordat null and void and substituted a law quite inimical to the Church , which received the approbation of the Landtag.
On 20 November, , the Government and the archbishop came to an agreement concerning the filling of benefices and the administration of church property.
After a short respite, now conflicts arose between the two authorities with reference to the school system The Government, now entirely under the control of the Liberals , proposed a bill for a school law which almost entirely nullified the influence of the Church on education , conceding to the Church only the supervision of religious instruction.
Although Catholic clergy exerted every effort to bring about the failure of this scheme, and the archbishop in a pastoral letter opposed it, the bill in a somewhat aggravated form became a law, and the opposition of the Catholic population expressed in numerous mass meetings and addresses to the duke was completely disregarded.
The Liberals , who were in the majority in the Landtag, and had control of the Government, hesitated at nothing to make still more practically effective their principles of hostility to the Church.
In the Government instituted state examinations for theological students, to be held before a civil commissioner on the completion of the university course.
The Curia protested, and forbade the theological students to submit to this examination. As a result the clergy in the parishes subject to the appointment of the Grand duke received, instead of their stipends and appointments as pastors , only those of parish administrators. After the death of the archbishop 15 April, , the Government, by refusing to consider seven out of eight candidates, made the choice of an archbishop practically impossible, and the see remained vacant for eighteen years.
In civil marriage was made obligatory. In all Catholic institutions not purely ecclesiastical , but devoted to education or to charity, were secularized, withdrawn from the control of the Church , and large endowments left for Catholic purposes were thus alienated from their appointed use. In the members of religious orders and congregations were forbidden to give elementary instruction, to assist in the work of the ministry, or to conduct missions.
In the Old Catholics were placed on an equal footing with the Catholic Church ; several Catholic churches were turned over to them, and their Bishop Reinkens was recognized by the Government as a Catholic national bishop Landesbischof.
In admission to any ecclesiastical office was made to depend on proof of a general scientific training, meaning thereby a three years' course at a German university , excluding all Jesuit institutions. The archiepiscopal seminaries and boarding schools for boys were closed. In undenominational schools were introduced and made obligatory , the Catholic corporation schools were made unsectarian, and several monastic educational institutions were suppressed.
Not until after the retirement of the Liberal minister, Jolly, the soul of the anti-Catholic legislation, i. In state examinations for theological students were dispensed with; in the archiepiscopal see was filled by the appointment of Johann Baptist Orbin, who ruled until ; his successors were Johann Christian Roos, until ; George Ignaz Komp, who died as archbishop elect on the journey to his see , and Thomas Norber from In the boarding schools for boys and the seminaries were reopened, and members of religious orders were once more allowed to preach.
Meanwhile the political development of Baden had been undisturbed. In , it is true , the Grand duke had been forced against his will to fight on the side of Austria and the German Confederation against Prussia ; but as early as 28 July he arranged a truce and proclaimed his withdrawal from the German Confederation.
On 17 August he concluded peace, and an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia. The military forces of Baden were organized on Prussian lines, and when, in , Baden openly took sides with Prussia , they fought with distinction in many battles.
The internal administration was now conducted along Liberal lines. The Liberal majority of the Chamber was not disturbed until In a more impartial election law was introduced. The Government, however, still holds to its Liberal tendencies, and refuses the just demands of Catholics for the admission of religious orders of men. Unfriendliness towards the Catholic Church seems again to be gaining ground, as is shown by ordinances requiring an investigation among the whole body of the Catholic clergy on account of alleged abuses of electoral influence and other charges.
State and Church in Baden The relations between the Catholic Church and the Government are not entirely satisfactory, as is evident from the historical account, the State often exercising an excessive control. According to the legislation now in force, the Roman Catholic Church in Baden possesses the right of a public corporation with the formation of religious societies. The Church conducts its affairs freely and independently. The clergy are not restricted in their communication with ecclesiastical superiors.
The highest spiritual authority of Catholic Baden is the Archbishop of Freiburg , who is also Metropolitan of the province of the Upper Rhine; he is a member of the First Chamber of Baden, ranks immediately after the ministers of state, and enjoys the title of Excellency. Ecclesiastical offices are filled by the church authorities, but are granted only to those who are citizens of Baden and can give proof of having had a general scientific training.
No exemption from a regular three years' course at a German university is granted to anyone who has completed the same course at a Jesuit institution. Every priest on entering the work of the ministry in Baden must take the constitutional oath. The public exercise of church functions is permitted to priests coming from outside of Baden only under certain conditions.
Without government authorization no religious order may be brought into Baden, nor may a new foundation be made by an order already established. Moreover, this authorization is subject to revocation.
The holding of missions and the work of the ministry by members of religious orders are in general forbidden, unless in case of extreme necessity. By legislation of the German Empire , the obligation of a civil marriage ceremony was introduced, the duty of military service on the part of Catholic theological students abolished, and the Society of Jesus and what the laws call "cognate" orders and congregations excluded from the German Empire.
Church property The property of the archiepiscopal board, the cathedral chapter, the metropolitan church, and the seminary , as well as the funds under the immediate control of the archbishop or the chapter, are managed by the archbishop and the chapter without interference; that under rural chapters by the chapters themselves under the supervision of the ordinary; local property , i.
The property of the ecclesiastical institutions of a district is managed by a commission, half the members being chosen by the Government, and half by the archbishop from the Catholics of the district. The interealary fund that is to say, the fiscal department for the collection, management, and lawful expenditure of the incomes of vacant benefices in the Grand Duchy of Baden is administered by a council known as the Catholic Oberstiftungsrat , consisting of a president and six members, under the joint supervision of the archbishop and Government.
The members are Catholics , half being appointed by Government, and half by the archbishop. All must meet the approval of both. The president must also be selected and named with the consent of both. The Oberstiftungsrat also supervises the administration of the local and diocesan institutions and of all benefices , occupied or vacant. Local associations of the members belonging to the churches recognized in Baden have, as parishes , the rights of public corporations.
For the defrayal of expenses incident to public worship, as, for example, the maintenance and repair of parish churches and rectories, the purchase and care of the necessary church furniture, and the salaries of the under employees of the church, the parish can assess certain taxes on its members.
There is, in addition, a general church assessment for the common needs of the Catholic Church of Baden, e. However, each king preferred certain places; in Otto's case, this was the city of Magdeburg. Kingship continued to be transferred by election, but Kings often ensured their own sons were elected during their lifetimes, enabling them to keep the crown for their families.
This only changed after the end of the Salian dynasty in the 12th century. Up to that time, he had remained in Germany, while a deposed Duke, Crescentius II , ruled over Rome and part of Italy, ostensibly in his stead. Otto died young in , and was succeeded by his cousin Henry II , who focused on Germany.
This group eventually developed into the college of Electors. Kings often employed bishops in administrative affairs and often determined who would be appointed to ecclesiastical offices. Meanwhile, the German princes had elected another king, Rudolf of Swabia.
After his death, his second son, Henry V , reached an agreement with the Pope and the bishops in the Concordat of Worms. The Pope and the German princes had surfaced as major players in the political system of the empire.
When the Salian dynasty ended with Henry V's death in , the princes chose not to elect the next of kin, but rather Lothair , the moderately powerful but already old Duke of Saxony.
When he died in , the princes again aimed to check royal power; accordingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf family, but Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family, the grandson of Emperor Henry IV and thus a nephew of Emperor Henry V.
This led to over a century of strife between the two houses. Conrad ousted the Welfs from their possessions, but after his death in , his nephew Frederick I "Barbarossa" succeeded him and made peace with the Welfs, restoring his cousin Henry the Lion to his — albeit diminished — possessions.
The Hohenstaufen rulers increasingly lent land to ministerialia , formerly non-free service men, who Frederick hoped would be more reliable than dukes. Initially used mainly for war services, this new class of people would form the basis for the later knights , another basis of imperial power. A further important constitutional move at Roncaglia was the establishment of a new peace mechanism for the entire empire, the Landfrieden , with the first imperial one being issued in under Henry IV at Mainz.
Another new concept of the time was the systematic foundation of new cities by the Emperor and by the local dukes. These were partly caused by the explosion in population, and they also concentrated economic power at strategic locations. Before this, cities had only existed in the form of old Roman foundations or older bishoprics.
Cities that were founded in the 12th century include Freiburg , possibly the economic model for many later cities, and Munich. Frederick I , also called Frederick Barbarossa, was crowned Emperor in He emphasized the "Romanness" of the empire, partly in an attempt to justify the power of the Emperor independent of the now strengthened Pope.
An imperial assembly at the fields of Roncaglia in reclaimed imperial rights in reference to Justinian 's Corpus Juris Civilis. Imperial rights had been referred to as regalia since the Investiture Controversy, but were enumerated for the first time at Roncaglia. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees, and the investiture or seating and unseating of office holders.
These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act. Frederick's policies were primarily directed at Italy, where he clashed with the increasingly wealthy and free-minded cities of the north, especially Milan. He also embroiled himself in another conflict with the Papacy by supporting a candidate elected by a minority against Pope Alexander III — Frederick supported a succession of antipopes before finally making peace with Alexander in In Germany, the Emperor had repeatedly protected Henry the Lion against complaints by rival princes or cities especially in the cases of Munich and Lübeck.
Henry gave only lackluster support to Frederick's policies, and in a critical situation during the Italian wars, Henry refused the Emperor's plea for military support.
After returning to Germany, an embittered Frederick opened proceedings against the Duke, resulting in a public ban and the confiscation of all his territories. During the Hohenstaufen period, German princes facilitated a successful, peaceful eastward settlement of lands that were uninhabited or inhabited sparsely by West Slavs. German speaking farmers, traders, and craftsmen from the western part of the Empire, both Christians and Jews, moved into these areas. The gradual Germanization of these lands was a complex phenomenon that should not be interpreted in the biased terms of 19th-century nationalism.
The eastward settlement expanded the influence of the empire to include Pomerania and Silesia , as did the intermarriage of the local, still mostly Slavic, rulers with German spouses. The monastic state of the Teutonic Order German: Deutschordensstaat and its later German successor state of Prussia were, however, never part of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry added the Norman kingdom of Sicily to his domains, held English king Richard the Lionheart captive, and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy when he died in As his son, Frederick II , though already elected king, was still a small child and living in Sicily, German princes chose to elect an adult king, resulting in the dual election of Frederick Barbarossa's youngest son Philip of Swabia and Henry the Lion's son Otto of Brunswick , who competed for the crown.
Otto prevailed for a while after Philip was murdered in a private squabble in , until he began to also claim Sicily. After his victory, Frederick did not act upon his promise to keep the two realms separate. Though he had made his son Henry king of Sicily before marching on Germany, he still reserved real political power for himself. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the Pope finally excommunicated the Emperor.
Another point of contention was the crusade, which Frederick had promised but repeatedly postponed. Now, although excommunicated, Frederick led the Sixth Crusade in , which ended in negotiations and a temporary restoration of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Despite his imperial claims, Frederick's rule was a major turning point towards the disintegration of central rule in the Empire.
While concentrated on establishing a modern, centralized state in Sicily, he was mostly absent from Germany and issued far-reaching privileges to Germany's secular and ecclesiastical princes: In the Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis , Frederick gave up a number of regalia in favour of the bishops, among them tariffs, coining, and fortification.
The Statutum in favorem principum mostly extended these privileges to secular territories. Although many of these privileges had existed earlier, they were now granted globally, and once and for all, to allow the German princes to maintain order north of the Alps while Frederick concentrated on Italy. The Kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. In , King Ottokar I bearing the title "king" since extracted a Golden Bull of Sicily a formal edict from the emperor Frederick II , confirming the royal title for Ottokar and his descendants and the Duchy of Bohemia was raised to a kingdom.
Bohemian kings would be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. Conrad's death was followed by the Interregnum , during which no king could achieve universal recognition, allowing the princes to consolidate their holdings and become even more independent rulers.
After , the crown was contested between Richard of Cornwall , who was supported by the Guelph party , and Alfonso X of Castile , who was recognized by the Hohenstaufen party but never set foot on German soil. After Richard's death in , the Interregnum ended with the unanimous election of Rudolf I of Germany , a minor pro-Staufen count.
During the 13th century, a general structural change in how land was administered prepared the shift of political power towards the rising bourgeoisie at the expense of aristocratic feudalism that would characterize the Late Middle Ages.
Instead of personal duties, money increasingly became the common means to represent economic value in agriculture. Peasants were increasingly required to pay tribute for their lands. The concept of "property" began to replace more ancient forms of jurisdiction, although they were still very much tied together. In the territories not at the level of the Empire , power became increasingly bundled: Whoever owned the land had jurisdiction, from which other powers derived.
It is important to note, however, that jurisdiction at this time did not include legislation, which virtually did not exist until well into the 15th century. Court practice heavily relied on traditional customs or rules described as customary. During this time territories began to transform into the predecessors of modern states. The process varied greatly among the various lands and was most advanced in those territories that were most identical to the lands of the old Germanic tribes, e.
It was slower in those scattered territories that were founded through imperial privileges. The difficulties in electing the king eventually led to the emergence of a fixed college of prince-electors Kurfürsten , whose composition and procedures were set forth in the Golden Bull of , which remained valid until This development probably best symbolizes the emerging duality between emperor and realm Kaiser und Reich , which were no longer considered identical.
The emperor now was to be elected by a majority rather than by consent of all seven electors. For electors the title became hereditary, and they were given the right to mint coins and to exercise jurisdiction. Also their sons were to know the imperial languages — German , Latin , Italian , and Czech.
The shift in power away from the emperor is also revealed in the way the post-Hohenstaufen kings attempted to sustain their power. Earlier, the Empire's strength and finances greatly relied on the Empire's own lands, the so-called Reichsgut , which always belonged to the king of the day and included many Imperial Cities.
After the 13th century, the relevance of the Reichsgut faded, even though some parts of it did remain until the Empire's end in Instead, the Reichsgut was increasingly pawned to local dukes, sometimes to raise money for the Empire, but more frequently to reward faithful duty or as an attempt to establish control over the dukes.
The direct governance of the Reichsgut no longer matched the needs of either the king or the dukes. The kings beginning with Rudolf I of Germany increasingly relied on the lands of their respective dynasties to support their power.
In contrast with the Reichsgut , which was mostly scattered and difficult to administer, these territories were relatively compact and thus easier to control. In , Rudolf I thus lent Austria and Styria to his own sons. After him all kings and emperors relied on the lands of their own family Hausmacht: Interestingly, it was thus increasingly in the king's own interest to strengthen the power of the territories, since the king profited from such a benefit in his own lands as well.
The "constitution" of the Empire still remained largely unsettled at the beginning of the 15th century. Although some procedures and institutions had been fixed, for example by the Golden Bull of , the rules of how the king, the electors, and the other dukes should cooperate in the Empire much depended on the personality of the respective king. It therefore proved somewhat damaging that Sigismund of Luxemburg king , emperor — and Frederick III of Habsburg king , emperor — neglected the old core lands of the empire and mostly resided in their own lands.
Without the presence of the king, the old institution of the Hoftag , the assembly of the realm's leading men, deteriorated. The Imperial Diet as a legislative organ of the Empire did not exist at that time.
The dukes often conducted feuds against each other — feuds that, more often than not, escalated into local wars. Simultaneously, the Catholic Church experienced crises of its own, with wide-reaching effects in the Empire. The conflict between several papal claimants two anti-popes and the "legitimate" Pope ended only with the Council of Constance — ; after the Papacy directed much of its energy to suppressing the Hussites.
Bilder: rudolf single uberlingen
Among the neighboring rulers those with the largest landed possessions were the Counts of the Rhine Palatinate Heidelberg etc. On the contrary, the Government openly favored movements of a rationalistic and irreligious nature, even on the part of professors of theology in the university of Freiburg ; it allowed the just demands of the archbishop for adequate disciplinary powers to pass unnoticed, gave protection to unworthy clerics and those who had been insubordinate to their ecclesiastical superiors, almost entirely excluded the co-operation of the Church in the management of Catholic schools and in the administration of Catholic church property , permitted insults to be leveled against the Church by the Radicals in the Landtag, favored Rongeanism, etc.
In Baden, by the order of the Grand duke, the candidate for the archiepiscopal see was elected by free vote of the assembled deans , but their choice of Wanker, a professor of theology in Freiburg , was condemned by the pope as canonically invalid. Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V.
The eastward settlement expanded the influence of the empire to include Pomerania and Silesiaas did the intermarriage of the local, still mostly Slavic, rulers with German spouses. This group eventually developed into the college of Electors. The difficulties in electing the king eventually led to the emergence of a fixed college of prince-electors Kurfürstenwhose composition rudolf single uberlingen procedures were set forth in the Golden Bull ofwhich remained valid until At rudolf single uberlingen command of the archbishop the diocesan court rudolf single uberlingen to transact all business, and sent a dispatch to Rome asking the pope to make provisions for the administration of the diocese. History The Middle Ages The present Grand duchy has been formed from the territories of various ecclesiastical and secular rulers. Napoleon reorganized much of the Empire into the Confederation of the Rhinea French satellite. Conrad ousted the Welfs from their possessions, but after his death partnersuche metzingenhis nephew Frederick I "Barbarossa" succeeded him and made peace with the Welfs, restoring his cousin Henry the Lion to his — albeit diminished — possessions.
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