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hammelburg single

He had yet to deploy overseas, much less come to grips with the Wehrmacht. The Pope was selling offices and indulgences to get money for an ambitious building program which included the construction of St. Discuss the effects of the dissolution of Yugoslavia on its successor states. Compare and contrast the role of two leaders, each chosen from a different region, in the development of the Cold War between and Why, in spite of early successes, did the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War? Evaluate the economic impact of the Cold War on two states, each from a different region.

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Task Force Baum was on its own. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars? The NavICom C4I system provides the soldier with a digital moving map display showing the soldier's own position, the position of his comrades, danger zones, targets and the enemy situation. Examine the impact of resistance movements on the outcome of any one war. Abrams did not like the idea of a raid any more than Hoge, but realizing further protest was useless, volunteered to lead the mission himself and to take all of Combat Command B with him. At this time, the local prince, Frederick III of Saxony The Wise , had been granted permission from the Pope to sell indulgences in Wittenberg to raise money for a bridge over the Elbe.

Patton wanted a small force, less than a battalion. Was the small size of the force to reduce the risk to Patton himself if things went awry?

Denied the mission, Abrams offered Patton Lt. Hal Cohen, commander of the 10th Armored Infantry Battalion even though Cohen suffered from an incapacitating case of hemorrhoids. Patton pulled Baum aside and promised the young captain a Medal of Honor if he succeeded. Baum did not need the inducement. Baum liked and respected Patton, was confident in himself and his men, and knew how to follow orders.

The discussion ended and the die was cast. Baum was going to Hammelberg to get John Waters. Task Force Baum set out that evening. Baum had a little under men, including a company of Sherman tanks, a half-track-borne infantry company, and a few extra jeeps and half-tracks for fuel, medical evacuation, and prisoner transport.

There was also a platoon of three Sherman assault guns mounting low-velocity mm cannon, and a reconnaissance platoon of Stuarts, still mounting their 37mm squirrel guns. Although Stiller outranked Baum, he was not in command.

The American attack kicked off at , March 26, If anyone expected the Germans to roll over and let Baum and his men through, they were immediately disabused of the notion. The Americans fought a vicious battle just to open the gate at Schweinheim.

Several tanks were destroyed. Their crews and the armored infantrymen fighting alongside were the first casualties, although hardly the last, of the mission. Baum knew speed was vital to success, but had to wait with his men nearly five hours as the battle raged. Finally, at on March 27, with the fight still under way, Baum blasted his vehicle column through the smoking town, moving quickly down the road to Hammelburg. The American column raced through the first few villages meeting little or no opposition, firing at anything suspicious as they drove by.

Turning due east they rumbled into the town of Lohr well into the Franken hill country. There they met their first serious resistance after Schweinheim. A Sherman exploded after being hit by a handheld Panzerfaust antitank weapon.

The Stuarts of the recon platoon gamely took the lead. In no time they ran into a convoy of German trucks that they destroyed on the run with 37mm cannon and. The column sped on toward the town of Gemünden on the River Saale. The Americans attacked several unlucky German trains they encountered along the way, wrecking vital parts of the disintegrating German rail system. Across the front, German officers reacted sharply to the American breakthrough.

Meanwhile, in Gemünden, elements of a full German infantry division already guarded the bridge Baum had to cross to get to Hammelburg. The task force broke into the town, driving as fast as possible through the narrow streets, making for the vital bridge, fighting and taking casualties to men and machines. When the vanguard reached the bridge and began to cross, a preset demolition charge exploded beneath them, killing and wounding several men. Baum had been wounded in the hand and knee in the confused and bloody fight through the town.

In pain and with his small force taking more casualties with every passing minute, Baum hurriedly searched his map for an alternate river crossing. A captured German soldier told Baum of an intact bridge at the town of Burgsinn, six miles north. Baum located the town on the map and did not hesitate. Taking the German with them, Baum extricated the column and turned it north toward Burgsinn and the bridge to Hammelburg.

The column crossed the Saale at Burgsinn, now encumbered by casualties and over German prisoners. The Germans were not idle during the American actions behind their lines. By sunrise on March 27, as Task Force Baum approached Gemünden, German commanders had moved to close the breakthrough. Still uncertain whether the task force was a major American effort or a raiding party, they moved their best available tank force toward Hammelberg. This was a company of Jagdpanthers , recently arrived from the Eastern Front.

Jagdpanthers were considered so valuable that German commanders deployed them on the Eastern Front only in company strength as mobile emergency units. A single company could stop a Soviet brigade on good terrain. Now these formidable machines, still aboard their trains in railroad siding in Schweinfurt, set off for the short ride north to Hammelburg.

Task Force Baum reached Hammelburg at about on March 27, barely 12 hours after their breakthrough at Schweinheim. They had to turn right on the roadway to reach the Oflag that was about two miles to the south.

Koehl had gambled that the Americans would head for the Oflag and carefully sited his Jagdpanther s on favorable ground near the Hammelburg rail station where they had offloaded just a few hours earlier.

The battle-hardened American tankers leading the column spotted the German ambush a moment before the 88s opened up. Baum ordered the American tanks to fire on the Germans with everything they had and keep moving. There was no point in slugging it out with the more powerful German machines.

The American fusillade damaged a couple of the German tank destroyers. German fire hit many American vehicles as well. Try though they did to bypass the ambush, tanks, half-tracks, and jeeps got hit as they forged up a long hill toward the Oflag. The Americans desperately needed some cover. Baum ordered his Sherman mm platoon to take position on the hill and engage the Jagdpanthers with high explosive antitank HEAT rounds and white phosphorus smoke. The platoon commander, year-old Staff Sgt.

Charles Graham, positioned his tanks as ordered. Soon the American assault guns were trading blows with the Germans and scoring hits despite the uneven match. Another Jagdpanther was hit and withdrew. Then Graham noticed a six-truck convoy heading toward the Germans in fact carrying supplies of extra fuel and ammo. Although the extra supplies of both sides had been ruined, the Americans had nothing but what they carried with them, while the German losses could, and would, be made good.

As the Americans ground up the hill outside the Oflag , they engaged the defenders in a desultory fight that terrified both the POWs and the German garrison. For nearly two hours the Americans fired at the German defenders in the camp but did not storm the gates. At this time, the local prince, Frederick III of Saxony The Wise , had been granted permission from the Pope to sell indulgences in Wittenberg to raise money for a bridge over the Elbe.

In addition, a representative of the Pope was just over the border in Thuringia selling indulgences to raise money for the Pope and for another German nobleman who was purchasing a church office the Bishopric of Mainz from the Pope.

The Pope was selling offices and indulgences to get money for an ambitious building program which included the construction of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome. The Pope's representative, the Dominican Father Tetzel, encouraged people to buy the indulgences with the jingle,. Martin Luther was sent to Rome in on an errand for his order.

He was shocked by the lack of morality and piety of the local clergy and by the luxurious lifestyle of the Pope Leo X, a member of the Medici family. Pope Leo was known for his expensive tastes and was fond of hunting, gambling and carnivals. The papacy was at a low point in its history and others had been calling out for reform prior to Luther. Martin Luther was a theology professor at the newly-established University of Wittenberg and had been spending a good deal of his time reading the Scriptures and writings of the early Christians, especially St.

He came to the conclusion there was no evidence in the Bible for believing the Pope had power to release souls from Purgatory. Therefore, he felt the pieces of paper being sold to escape Purgatory were worthless and pious Christians were being scammed. The fact that the funds were going from poor German peasants to wealthy Roman clergy made the fraud even more disturbing. He wrote out a list of his objections to the practice; he named 95 issues he wished to dispute.

On October 31, , Luther nailed his ninety-five theses, or points of discussion, on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. The document was in Latin and invited other scholars to debate the statements set out.

This was the normal way to offer topics for formal discussion in a community of scholars, so the act of nailing the paper to the door was not revolutionary. However, the topic was a touchy one. Indulgences were a major method of fund-raising for the Church. The 95 Theses were translated into German and widely distributed throughout Germany, courtesy of the printing press. There is some question about whether the list was actually attached to the church door.

Phillip Melanchthon, Luther's closest ally, described the event in a writing after Luther's death and recently another writing of a contemporary has come to light which also states the theses were nailed to the door. Luther never mentioned it in his own writings.

There is no question, however, that Luther wrote the list and sent a copy of it to Prince Albert of Mainz. The protest against the indulgences set off a conflagration which, step by step, resulted in most of Northern Europe breaking away from the authority of the Catholic Church. The reaction of the Church initially was to try and suppress the attack on indulgences by suppressing Martin Luther.

Pope Leo directed the head of the Augustinians to: He also allegedly remarked, "Luther is a drunken German. He will feel differently when he is sober". However, because of the complex politics of the time involving the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain and France, the Pope couldn't afford to alienate the German princes. Some of the princes were sympathetic to Luther and German resentment against sending money to Rome was on the rise. The Pope, directly and through churchmen supporting him, told Luther he was wrong, but would be forgiven if he backed down.

Luther became more adamant and started adding new complaints about the Church. A flurry of pamphlets and tracts issued from both camps attacking each other. A debate was held in Leipzig, with Luther challenging the authority of the Pope to decide doctrine and maintaining that many church practices, including most of the sacraments, were bogus because they conflicted with Scripture.

It was clear by this time that there could be no coming together on these issues, since the very authority of the Pope was called into question. Luther had made himself very unpopular with the Church. The Church did act to curb the worst abuses of indulgences, but it was too late. The debate had moved far beyond that. See Protestant Reformation for a list of the doctrinal differences between Luther and the Church.

Pope Leo sent Luther a notice that he would be excommunicated unless he renounced his heretical views within 60 days.

Luther responded by publicly burning the letter, or "bull" in Wittenberg, along with a stack of Church writings. To what extent was the colonial legacy the main problem in two non-European new states, each chosen from a different region?

Assess the causes of the rise of nationalism in one non-European new state. Compare and contrast the independence movements in two developing states, one in Africa and the other in Asia. For what reasons, and with what results, was either India or Kenya successful in obtaining independence?

Examine gender issues before and after independence in either Algeria or Pakistan. Analyse the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state. Evaluate the successes and failures of one ruler of a single-party state.

Assess the methods used by either Lenin or Peron to maintain his regime. Compare and contrast the influence outside their own countries of Hitler and Mao. Examine the status of women in two single-party states, each chosen from a different region. Topic 4 Peace and cooperation: Why, in spite of early successes, did the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of the Second World War? In what ways, and with what success, did one twentieth century international organisation try to improve social and economic conditions?

To what extent did Nehru's government in India fulfil its expectations? Compare and contrast the foreign policies of two multiparty states. Topic 5 The Cold War Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War. In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War?

Analyse the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War. Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold War after To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War? Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities Compare and contrast the difficulties faced by two minorities ethnic, racial or religious , each chosen from a different region. Evaluate the impact of the state religion on law and morality in two countries.

Assess the relationship between an ethnic or racial minority with the ethnic or racial majority in that state. For what reasons, and with what results, did religious majorities fear religious minorities in the twentieth century? How did education both help and hinder the integration of minorities?

Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of war. To what extent did technological developments ensure victory in twentieth century wars? Assess the social results of two wars, each chosen from a different region. Topic 2 Nationalist and independence movements, decolonisation and challenges facing new states 6.

Analyse the factors favouring the growth of independence movements in one non-European colonial state. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence? Assess the economic problems facing one new non-European state in the ten years after independence.

Compare and contrast tribal influence in two African states after they had achieved independence. Analyse the form of government after independence in either Algeria or Indonesia. Topic 3 The rise and rule of single-party states. To what extent was the rise to power of either Hitler or Mao due to personal appeal and ability? Compare and contrast the domestic policies of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?

Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party states. Compare and contrast the peace keeping aims and methods of the League of Nations and the United Nations. Evaluate the success of one multiparty state in improving the status of women. Analyse the foreign policy of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region. Assess the successes and failures of governments in either Japan or the USA Topic 5 The Cold War. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Germany in the Cold War.

Examine the part played by economic issues in the development of the Cold War. Topic 6 The state and its relationship with religion and with minorities. Assess the impact on politics of relations between church and state in two countries, each chosen from a different region. Assess the effects of the persecution of religious minorities during the twentieth century. To what extent did changes in military tactics and strategies determine the outcome of twentieth century wars?

In what ways and with what results did two wars, each chosen from a different region, affect the role and status of women? Compare and contrast the rise to power of two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region. To what extent was either Mussolini, between and , or Nasser, between and , successful in achieving his aims? In what ways did one ruler of a single-party state try to use education to support his regime? Analyse the successes and failures of the political career of either Lenin or Nyerere.

Assess the importance of foreign policy for rulers of single-party states. To what extent did international organizations find it difficult to achieve peace and cooperation in the twentieth century?

Compare and contrast the foundation and structure of the League of Nations and the United Nations. Analyse the social and economic policies of two multiparty states, each chosen from a different region.

Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War. Compare and contrast the roles of Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: When and why did the Cold War end?

Compare and contrast the causes of the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Examine the role of warfare either at sea or in the air in two wars each chosen from a different region. Why, and with what results, was the First World War not confined to Europe? Analyse the results of one twentieth century treaty or peace settlement. For what reasons, and in what ways, did one twentieth century war affect the social and economic conditions of two countries fighting in it?

Analyse the rise to power of either Hitler or Lenin. Compare and contrast the regime of one right wing and one left wing single-party state.

With reference to at least two rulers, assess the importance of social and economic policies for rulers of single-party states. In what ways, and with what results, did either Castro or Mussolini use foreign policy to support his regime? To what extent was the ruler of one single-party state successful in achieving his aims? How successful were international organizations in achieving peace in the second half of the twentieth century?

Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of the League of Nations and the United Nations. Discuss the domestic and foreign policies of the government of either the USA to , or Spain to Assess the successes and failures of the foreign policies of two multiparty states each chosen from a different region.

Compare and contrast the causes of two twentieth century civil wars. Define guerilla warfare, and discuss its significance in two wars, each chosen from a different region. Analyse a the short-term results, and b the long-term results up to , of the First World War. In what ways, and with what results, did either the Korean War or the Vietnam War bring about social and cultural changes in the countries involved?

In what ways, and for what reasons, did the nature of war in the air change between and ? Analyse the methods used by either Castro or Peron to obtain power. Evaluate the domestic policies of either Hitler or Nasser. For what reasons, and with what success, did rulers of single-party states use foreign policy to maintain their power?

At least two rulers should be considered. In what ways did two rulers of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, a use, and b misuse, the arts and education? Compare and contrast the role and status of women in two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century. Account for the foundation of a multiparty state in either Spain in , or South Africa in , and evaluate the success of your chosen state. For what reasons, and with what results, were there disagreements between participants at the conferences of Yalta and Potsdam in ?

Define and analyse the importance of two of the following: Examine the role and importance of fear and suspicion in the development of the Cold War between and In what ways were social and gender issues affected by the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region? Why did the Cold War spread from Europe to other parts of the world after ? Analyse a the long-term causes and b the short-term causes, of the Second World War. Define limited war and explain to what extent one twentieth century war was a limited war.

Compare and contrast the social and economic issues caused by two wars, each chosen from a different region. To what extent did foreign involvement affect the outcome of either the Spanish Civil War, or the Vietnam War?

For what reasons, and with what results, did the nature of war at sea change between and ? Evaluate the methods used by either Lenin between and or Mussolini between and to consolidate his rule.

To what extent was foreign policy a the key to success, or b the reason for failure, for the rulers of two single-party states, each chosen from a different region? Analyse the successes and failures in solving the problems faced by either Castro or Nasser. For what reasons, and with what results, did rulers of single-party states both support and censor the arts?

Analyse the successes and failures of the League of Nations between and Compare and contrast the social and economic policies of two multiparty states in the second half of the twentieth century. To what extent did either Argentina between and , or Japan between and , benefit from being a multiparty state? What were the reasons for, and results of, the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?

Define, and analyse the importance of, two of the following: Assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region. Analyse the role of mutual distrust in the development of the Cold War between and Why did the Cold War begin and end in Europe? Topic 1 Causes, practices and effects of wars. Analyse the principal causes of either the Algerian War — or the Spanish Civil War — Assess the importance of air power in determining the outcome of one twentieth century war.

Examine the reasons for, and the results of, the Indo-Pakistan wars — In what ways, and with what results, did twentieth century wars increase the role and status of women? Topic 2 Democratic states — challenges and responses. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for democratic states of a coalition governments, and b proportional representation.

In de Gaulle said: To what extent did his policies follow this rule? Compare and contrast the policies of two of the following: Why was the Weimar state set up as a democratic state in Germany, and why did it fail to fulfil its promise and purpose?

Bilder: hammelburg single

hammelburg single

Waters was nowhere to be found.

hammelburg single

Evaluate the methods used by either Lenin between and or Mussolini between and to consolidate his rule. Discuss the social and cultural impact of the global spread of the Cold War on two countries excluding the US and the USSR , each chosen from a different region. There was no getting around it.

hammelburg single

Assess the contribution of guerrilla hammelburg single to the outcome of either the Chinese Civil War — and — or the Algerian War — While Waters and his men fought for their lives on Djebel Lessouda, 1st Hammelburg single. Evaluate the impact of the hammekburg religion on law and morality in two countries. December 17, Fenton, Missouri. German fire hit many American vehicles as well. Views Read Edit View history.